Freundeskreis Klassische Yachten


Report of the Meeting 9-10 September 2003 Principality of Monaco

blue.gif (104 Byte) Presents :


    Bernard D'ALESSANDRI, Vice President du CIM

    Jean. Pierre CHAMPION, President de la Federation Francaise de Voile

    Giorgio BALESTRERO, Membra de l'AIVE, Italian Association for Classic Yachts

    Dennis CONNER, 4 fois vainqueur de ['America's Cup

    Butch DARYMPLE SMITH, architecte - Classic Works Butch design

    Herve ELIES, Societe des Regates de Perros-Guirec

    Marta EROLES ASENSIO, Secretaire RANC - Real Asociacion Nacional de Cruceros

    Renaud GODARD, AFYT (Association Francaise Yachts de Tradition)

    Halsey HERRESHOFF, President Herreshoff Marine Museum

    Peter KOENIG, Freundeskreis Klassische Yachten

    Ernst KLAUS, President de 1' AMBC Association Monegasque de yachts classiques

    Abderrafih LAHLOU, Vice President du Yacht Club du Maroc

    AJex LAIRD, Directeur de Classic Works

    John LAMMERTS VANBUEREN, IEMA (International Eight Meter Association)

    William LEATHERMAN, ITMA (International Twelve Metre Association)

    Martin FRANCIS, Architecte naval Francis Design


    Philippe MENIHICK, Directeur du chantier ABN Saint Malo

    Peter MULLER, ISMA (International Six Meter Association)

    Joel PERRODO, Registre Francaise des Yachts de Tradition

    Doug PETERSON, Architecte naval

    Niccolo PORZIO DI CAMPOROTONDO, American Classic Yacht Association

    Guy RIBADEAU DUMAS, Architecte naval

    Riidiger SCHACH, European Classic Yachts Union

    Jacques TAGLANG, Registre des Yachts Classiques

    Alice WIDDOWS, The Spirit Yachts Society

    Donald TOFIAS, W-Class Racing Yachts

    Ron VALENT, Old Gaffer Association - VKSJ

    Nicolas VINTADIS, Hellenic Offshore Racing Club

    Bernardette LOFFREDA, Secretariat permanent du CIM

blue.gif (104 Byte) Excused absents :

    BONELLO DUPIUS George, Commodore Royal Malta Yacht Club

    CAPART Edmond, AMBC

    CROCE Carlo, President President YCI

    GARCIA PLANAS Frederico, President RCNB Barcelone

    GONZALES ISLA MASIP Aurelio, President RANC

    HECKLY Paul, President Yacht Club de France

    LANG Luigi, Secretaire General, Associazione Italiana Vele d'Epoca

    LOFFREDO Gianni, President Associazione Italiana Vele d'Epoca

    SCHNEPP Patrick, Directeur Musee Maritime de la Rochelle

    GOALEY Stephane, President Association Patrimoine du Leman

    CANNELL William, Chantier W.Cannell Boat Building

    COLLIER William, Historien

    DE STEFANO Brenda, General Manager International Classic Yacht Association

    DOYLE Bill, Vice Chairman Museum of Yachting's classic yachtregatta

    FRERS German, Architecte

    HENDERSON Paul, President International Sailing Federation

    KAPP John, Secretaire Association of Square Metre Yachts

    KENNEDY Ewan, President Scottish Islands Class Association

    MATUSCH Anthony, Membre Royal Yacht Squadron

    MEYER Fred, Vice President Societe Nautique de Geneve

    MEYER Elisabeth, President International Yacht restoration School

    ROSS Hamish, President Classic Yacht Association of New Zealand

    SANDERS William, membre New York Yacht Club

    STEPHENS Olin, Architecte, US Sailing Secretary G, Executive

    SUNDHEIM Arve, Director International Sailing Federation


blue.gif (104 Byte) After a brief word of welcome, Bernard d'Aiessandri announced the main subjects to be discussed:

  • The setting-up of international coordination among the different national classic yacht associations,
  • The preservation and protection of the heritage that classic yachts constitute, Maintenance of an international classic vessel class,
  • The establishment of a Standardised Rating System, and the coordination of circuits, gatherings, and events through the use of a communal calendar,
  • Definition of a Classic Yacht,
  • How to integrate and insert into regatta events the fast-growing « Spirit of Tradition » class.

Jean Pierre Champion, President of the Federation Francaise de Voile, thanked Bernard d'Aiessandri for the work carried out by CIM. He also expressed the wish to see a communal calendar for all classic yacht events, and the elaboration of a standardised rating measuring system.

blue.gif (104 Byte) Bernard d'Alessandri then invited participants to introduce themselves and their work :

    W-class racing yachts
    Donald Tofias is the conceptor of a range of monohulls, 37 to 130 feet, inspired by classic-yacht design but taking advantage of modern technology. His "W-Class Yacht Company" was founded in 1996. A keen regatta participant himself, Donald has convinced a number of owners to take up the sport.
    Real Asociacion Nacional de Cruceros - RANG
    Marta Eroles, RANG Secretary, presented the Association which is a member of CIM. 165 classic yachts adhere to the Association, 68 of which are of registered rating. This year, and for the first time, RANC and the RCNB (Real Club Nautico Barcelona) and under the auspices of CIM, jointly organised the 2003 Copa Del Rey Regatta. 35 classic yachts participated, and a second Copa Dei Rey is scheduled for 2004.
    Spain wishes to integrate the « Spirit of Tradition » category into CIM accepted classes with regulatory norms and ratings clearly defined.
    Classic Works Design
    Butch Darimple Smith is a yacht designer and specialist of classic yacht restoration. Currently, he is director of the shipyard "Classic Works Design" at La Ciotat, France. Butch gave an update on restoration progress regarding the vessels « Royon » and « Orion »; at the moment, 100 people are working on « Orion ». Butch indicated that he was concerned that such highly qualified craftsmen could continue to exercise their trades. He said that the number of classic yachts to restore over future years would decline. However, he affirmed that the number of replicas and Spirit of Tradition constructions would increase. Butch urges that such categories be fully classed and integrated.
    Noelle Duck - journalist
    Noelle Duck, journalist and yachting historian, has published many articles on the history and restoration of prestigious yachts. She is currently working on a Classic Yacht Guide featuring 150 vessels for the publisher Gallimard. Noelle is also convinced that the Spirit of Tradition category will progress. She raises questions on what should be included in such class definitions: along with neo-classics, what of the exact replicas constructed out of modern materials, wooden or steel yachts built post 1975, restored yachts that have integrated large percentages of technologically advanced materials ? And how to establish a fair and standardised rating registry among vessels so disparate?
    Classic Yachts Registry
    Joel Perrodo and Jacques Taglang represented the « Registre des Yachts Classiques ». Joel Perrodo runs his publishing house « Yachting Heritage » which produces classic yachting reference works (America's Cup Design, Class J, Endeavour, etc.). Jacques Taglang has founded an association « L'Annuaire des Yachts Classiques », which he hopes will integrate with the French Musee Maritime at La Rochelle.
    Association Monegasque de Bateaux Classiques (AMBC)
    Ernst Kaus, AMBC President and owner of « Kentra» and « Fulmar» is very interested in CIM activities. He stresses the importance of establishing clear and precise definitions for the various classes for the future edition of rating rules due in 2005: Epoch, Classic, Replica and Spirit of Tradition. Also, says Ernst, restoration is an excellent means of conserving and preserving the skilled labour needed to keep vessels sea-worthy.
    Doug Peterson
    As a yacht designer, Doug was for many years involved in the America's Cup. For the 1999/2000 Cup he drafted the plans for the Class America Prada Challenger; notably the finalist « Luna Rossa». He is a member of the CIM Technical Commisssion, and particularly concerned with the maintenance and evolution of a Rating Registry. Doug is of the opinion that it is important to define Classes for Classic Craft in order to define acceptance limits so that fleets can be better managed and evolve positively.
    Iain McAllister
    lain is an expert on the history of yachting in Scotland - no easy waters up there ! -and has contributed numerous articles to leading magazines concerning classic yachting throughout the world. Born in the Clyde, lain is in charge of the Rating Registry for the Fairlie Fife Regatta.
    Martin Francis Design
    For more than 25 years Martin Francis practiced the art of yacht designing in the South of France. From Sophia Antipolis, near Nice, he has recently moved back to the UK, where he finds the skills necessary to complete projects concerning very large vessels. Martin's restoration work has led him to develop a close interest in classic yachting. Martin is of the opinion that recent developments in modern craft are a parallel to those qualities that were closely sought at the period considered "classic yachting".
    ABN Saint Malo Shipyard
    Philippe Menhinick is Vice President of the AFYT (Association de Yachts Francais de Tradition), and Director of the Restoration Yard ABN, Saint Malo. The yard is currently « full-ahead » on two restorations. Philippe sails off the Brittany Coast and in the Mediterranean. His idea is to orient his yard's work towards replica construction, faithful to "old-timer" conceptions.
    Societe des Regates de Perros Guirec
    Societe des Regates de Perros-Guirec (SRP), was represented by Herve Elies, in charge of classic yachts and organiser of the Perros Classique. The Rating Formula applied in 2003 was that of the FFV, with the National Handicap. However, eyeing the future, Herve Elies reckons the formula not satisfactory; in the short term, a single Rating category will have to be adopted. SRP envisages a National Handicap Class to group the maximum number of vessels. But, further, to replace their partnership with the Musee Maritime of La Rochelle with a CIM category in order to immediately begin development of that Rating. SRP is seeking support from CIM so that it can establish a Rating Registry for the maximum number of craft over the next two years.
    Over time, Herve Elies wants to federate classic yacht owners from the Atlantic Coast and the Channel into the CIM Rating Registry.
    International Six Meter Association (ISMA)
    Peter Muller is secretary of the ISMA which has 6 National Association Members: Finland, Sweden, the UK, Germany, Switzerland and the USA - comprising around 300 vessels across the globe. The International 6-Metre Class uses metric rating for both classic and modern craft. As for the 8-Meter Class, pre-1968 vessels have a different rating from those of modern boats. ISMA is currently attempting to work out a fair compromise (technical developments, rating and restoration) in order to maintain the mix of the classic and the modern. ISMA wants to protect and develop both series. At present, a Classic Trophy and a Modern Trophy are awarded at European and World Championships. Currently on the drawingboard are rule revisions concerning construction and restoration. ISMA maintains a permanent contact with with the 8-Metre and 12-Metre Classes because of their widely shared interests.
    Herreshoff Maritime Museum
    Halsey Herreshoff is President of Herreshoff Maritime Museum. He is very involved in the restoration of numerous yachts in his museum - therein are 65 yachts signed Herreshoff. On average, he manages to restore about 3 craft per year. Annually, the month of July is given over to the « Herreshoff Rendez-Vous & Regatta » at Bristol, Rhode Island, USA.
    International Twelve Meter Association (ITMA)
    Bill Leatherman represented Mr. Dyer Jones, President of ITMA. Of the 180 12M-JI built in 1907, around 100 have survived and many have been preserved and restored. In 2001 ITMA modified its class rules significantly. Since that time the Association has encouraged its members to restore their vessels to the standards of CIM Rating for two precise reasons: to maintain and respect the maritime heritage embodied by those yachts and also to ensure their participation in CIM events. ITMA is continuing to refine its rating rules with the consequence that mono-class regattas hold the foreground ; however, an increasing number of owners would also like to compete in classic yacht regattas.
    American Class Yachting Association - ACYA
    Nicolo Porzio di Caporotondo is President of ACYA. The purpose of the Association is to promote classic yachting in the USA on a large scale. National classic yachting regattas are envisaged and the ACYA is closely studying the CIM Rating for such gatherings.
    Guy Ribadeau Pumas - Yacht Designer
    Guy Ribadeau Dumas has directed a number of restorations and is very interested in vessels of International Rating. Currently he is working on all the technical aspects of the construction of a replica of « Hermione », in Rochefort, France.
    International Eight Meter Association (IEMA)
    John Lammerts van Bueren is Secretary of ITMA which has 190 registered yachts; the main fleets are in Scandinavia, Canada, France, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. Very many 8-Metre craft are restored vessels; only about one new boat is constructed each year. The class has existed for more than 100 years thanks to a very well-programmed calendar of regattas which is sometimes established as far 7 or 8 years in advance. Also, the Association manages to integrate relatively new or modern craft with ease. IEMA has no desire to see the fleet fractured. Although the vessels may differ there are no statutes which differentiate between this or that craft. Each has a Rating Certificate which enables them to run together. During the course of the last 5 years, 4 replicas of the 8M-JI class have been built.
    Yacht Club of Morocco
    Lahlou Abderrafih is Vice President of « Yacht Club du Maroc » which has recently joined CIM. Mr Lahlou briefly presented the Cap Royal race organised in partnership with the "Federation Royale Marocaine de Yachting a Voile" Presided by His Highness Prince Moulay Rachid, and the RYCM. His Majesty King Mohammed VI, has taken a close interest in Morocco's membership of CIM and has become patron of the Cap Royal Cruiser-Race of Classic Yachts which passes through Casablanca, Tangiers and Monaco.
    Giorgio Balestrero is Consultant to AIVE (Associazione Italiana della Vela d'Epoca), which has 220 members and 104 registered yachts. Since 1980 A.I.V.E, a member of F.I.V. (the Italian Sailing Federation), has been dedicated to classic yachting.. As a close collaborator with CIM, AlVE's activities are wide-ranging : sporting events, technical matters and yachting culture and heritage. The Association has 1.150 files on yachts available in its archives. A.I.V.E. plays an active part within C.I.M., bringing together various Mediterranean Associations and Yacht Clubs. AIVE has made a major contribution by finalising a rating regulation that has slowly taken shape between France and Italy over the past 20 years.
    European Classing Yachting Union (ECYU) Hamburg
    Rudiger Schach is President of ECYU, the Union's principal aim is to preserve, maintain and promote the European classic yachting heritage. The best means of attaining such an objective is to establish contacts, exchange useful and interesting information to develop knowledge about classic yachting, its history and the various approaches adopted by the many classic yachting clubs and associations. As a federating member, ECYU brings together yachts clubs, national associations, museums linked to classic yachting, and also motorized craft and steam-yachts.
    Freundeskreis Klassische Yachten
    The German Freundeskreis Classic Yachts is an important member of the German Sailing Federation. Peter Koenig gave a very thorough report on FKY activities - it has 900 members and 750 classic yachts of which 450 are of registered rating; most are wood or steel built and are accepted up until the beginning of the seventies as regards construction dates. A database, «Yachting Archive », was initiated in 1988 and now has 2500 bateaux referenced on Internet at: FKY publishes a quarterly member-magazine, organises regattas and participates in large yacht gatherings such as the Kiel Week. Yacht restoration is not, as yet, greatly practiced in Germany.
    Association Francaise de Yachts Classiques (AFYT)
    Renaud Godard represented the French Association of Classic Yachts whose President is Francois Cam.
    AFYT lists 120 CIM Rating registered classic yachts. Under the auspices of CIM, the AFYT integrates its events calendar, improves rating regulations and provides updates for the database. The CIM Technical Commission, of which Renaud Godard is a member, concerns itself with three principal areas :
    - CIM Rating - to analyse results and draw conclusions as regards modifications for the next 2005 edition.
    - The integration of the "Spirit of Tradition » Class that is showing a healthy growth in numbers.
    - Replicas - as there is a dwindling fleet of craft left to restore, the number of replicas will of necessity grow.
    Classic Yacht Association of New Zealand
    The New Zealand Classic Yacht Association has approximately 200 members, and 254 yachts which compete under CIM Rating regulations. Currently, the Association is restoring 4 classic yachts: "IORANGI"(1901), "ETHEL" (1896), " ARAWA" (1936), and "AWATEA". The CYA of New Zealand has adopted a modified version of CIM Rating.

blue.gif (104 Byte) Having introduced member organisations present, Bernard d'Alessandri presented CIM : its actions, aims, and regatta calendar. He recalled the principal points of his collaboration with ISAF to establish an international classic boat class, and to get a standardised rating adopted by a variety of associations. Since 1999, C.I.M. has managed to establish a single rating system which covers the period 2001 until 2004. An updated edition will be published in 2005. CIM Rating is relatively easily adopted in the Mediterranean, in Argentina and New Zealand. C.I.M has facilitated exchange of data between its members during meetings held on an annual basis and, of course, during classic yacht events.
Bernard d'Alessandri requested each participant to express an opinion on what constitutes a classic yacht. The materials employed in such a construction seem to be a major element of such a definition. According to Doug Peterson it is important to distinguish between a classic yacht and a restored yacht - one that may comprise modern materials such as carbon. It is true that the promotion of classic sailing attracts more and more people who wish to compete aboard classic craft - but craft whose performance is enhanced. This gives rise to a certain conceptual conflict. Clearly definitions must be established concerning classic yachts, replicas and the Spirit of Tradition class.

blue.gif (104 Byte) Donald Tofias does not oppose the use of carbon, on the contrary, he affirms that a classic yacht incorporating carbon will be a much faster regatta vessel. Ernst Klaus comments that such yachts should have their ratings re-evaluated so as not to exclude yachts on the basis of the presence of carbon or not. Noelle Duck wonders whether it might be possible to have a special regulation concerning craft fitted with carbons spars or other items. Perhaps a separate class ? But, nonetheless, continuing to allow owners the pleasure of competing all together. Martin Francis and Bernard d'Alessandri express the view that a yacht should remain true to its original configuration in order to preserve maritime heritage. They think that it is contrary to the ethics of classic yachting to transform a classic vessel into a modern one.
For the great majority of participants, the essential is to clearly define classes so that fair rules can be established allowing a large number of craft to compete in regattas.

blue.gif (104 Byte) At present, CIM Rating Rules distinguish three Classes :
- vintage yachts - built before 1949
- classic yachts - built before 1975
- replicas - of recent build but constructed according to old designs
CIM's Technical Commission is working on the evolution of Rating by taking into account age, exterior and interior aspects, length, sail area, and a number of other significant parameters entering into the calculations of Rating. It is a complicated matter, and much must be done to elaborate a complete and fair system of measuring. The Technical Commission's Update will appear in 2005. No doubt others will follow; it is no simple task.
Understandably, many owners are enamoured of classic lines allied with the performance of the modern sailing-craft: the aesthetic plus the performance. It must be said that the sheer beauty of classic yachting, and also increased media coverage, have somewhat provoked this situation. Donald Tofias notes that the 2001 America's Cup Jubilee held at Cowes inspired a large number of people to become owners of classic yachts. Such a knock-on effect must be taken seriously. The Jubilee backwash has meant that 4 more regattas, for classic yachts, have been added to the New York Yacht Club's calendar.
Regarding the growing number of replica and Spirit of Tradition builds, such classes must be clearly established and integrated into competitive regattas.
Given that gradually there will be fewer and fewer older yachts to restore, the number of replicas built will increase. Consequently, it becomes a necessity to lay out criteria for selection and to clearly establish statutes for those craft/Currently, certain replicas, "Britannia" for example, are seeing their numbers double. It is important that this class be integrated and that the craft participate in regattas - the while defining regulations and handicaps.

Herve Elies thinks that the « Spirit of Tradition » category is the future, in so far as enthusiasts of traditional yachting are increasingly unable to find suitable craft due to the shrinking fleet of original classic vessels as the years go by. Bernard d'Alessandri added that the promotion of classic yachts has largely contributed to the development of the « Spirit of Tradition » category. In Bernard's opinion it is a matter of some urgency to clarify the status of the category in order for it to enjoy a solid basis from which it may fully evolve. The American classic yachting fraternity is particularly concerned to push ahead in that direction.
Jean Pierre Champion feels that yachting benefits from a very positive image and that the « Spirit of Tradition » category offers some very handsome craft that should be welcomed. Within a few years, he says, there will be a great number of such yachts.

The Italian point of view on the matter is somewhat different. Giorgio Balestrero indicates that the Italians are very conservative. They wish to preserve their yachts. And they do not want to see "Spirit of Tradition" vessels integrated into the CIM Rating Registry.
Public enthusiasm for classic yachting has engendered a large number of classic yacht restoration projects. Around 100 such vessels are currently being treated in European yards - mostly in Italy, but also in France, Spain, the UK and in Holland. Such activity helps preserve certain crafts-workers' trades (shipwrights and carpenters, braziery and boiler-makers, and also general seafaring qualities). These skills are tending to disappear. The economic and employment aspect is also not insignificant.
Halsey Herreshoff points out that it is important to make a distinction between a restored yacht and one that is due to go into a museum. In reality, a yacht dedicated to regatting will always incorporate certain compromises, and some parts will sooner or later be modified. The museum philosophy is quite different, in that preservation of all that can be preserved is primordial. Hasley Herreshoff complimented CIM on its initiatives in favour of yacht-conservation, and also on its calendar of Mediterranean classic regattas. He also made the comment that European restoration work tends to be of a higher quality than that available in the USA.
Butch Darimple Smith said that vessels approaching the 100-year mark very frequently require structural reinforcement, but thereafter can often go on to navigate for another 100 years. Donald Tofias tells that among the 18 "NY-30" boats built by Nat Herreshoff - alias the "Wizard of Bristol, Rhode Island" - a dozen still exist, of which five compete in regattas. On the US East Coast there are about 100 classic yachts which compete in various regattas held during August and September. The major event of that season being the Museum of Yachting's Classic Yacht Regatta held on the final weekend of the month of August.

Niccolo Porzio di Caporontodo hopes to adopt a standard rating system for the USA by taking the best of what already exists. He is working towards a coherence of the fleet, with well-defined rules and a rating system suited to classic yachts. Donald Tofias indicates that the many varied rating systems used in the USA are not advantageous to classic yachting. He is for a single, standardised system. As regards France, CIM Rating is applied in the Mediterranean, but on the Atlantic coast and in the Channel other rating systems are employed.
Herve Elies said that RORC rules allowed various types of craft - respecting security and rating regulations - to compete against each. According to Herve, CIM should follow a line similar to that of the RORC. He requested the support of the French Sailing Federation (FFV) and Jean Pierre Champion promised to contact clubs, yacht-clubs and associations with a view to holding a meeting at which the application of CIM Rating would be put forward for the Atlantic coast. Several Brittany yacht clubs are already willing to push for the adoption of CIM Rating. Jean Pierre Champion thanked CIM, which was founded well before the FFV, for its initiatives in uniting yachts in the Mediterranean. He added that CIM had an advantage in that it represents several countries and it would therefore be freer of local lobbying groups. On the Atlantic coast there are several gatherings for classic yachts. Some organisers (Benodet and Noirmoutier) are already well-disposed towards the application of CIM Rating.

blue.gif (104 Byte) MERCREDI 10 septembre 2003
Bernard d'Alessandri introduced Georges Andreadis, Vice President of ISAF et Dennis Conner, four-time America's Cup winner, who were present at day two of the World Meeting. Dennis Conner, who received warm applause from the assembly, often sails on the US East Coast with Halsey Herreshoff. He is owner of a 1925, Anker-designed, mahogany-built classic yacht "Cotton Blossom II", which is currently being restored in San Diego. July 4th, 2004, will see match-racing between 100 Herreshoff-designed craft. Dennis Conner says that there are many classic yachts in San Diego - about 50% sloops and 50% schooners - and that the general atmosphere is very friendly.
John Lammerts van Bueren presented the construction of « Eleonora". John affirms this replica is very faithful to the original. Everything has been built according to the original Nat Herreshoff plans. Nat's grandson, Halsey Herreshoff, indicated that 17000 plan-drawings were necessary for the construction of "Westward" (drawings available at MIT). John Lammerts van Bueren affirms that « Eleonora» is a significant example of replica construction because it is completely authentic: deck and rigging are entirely steel-free, with the exception of the stays. At the other end of the spectrum is the construction of "Ranger" which has little to do with the original excepting its name. Modern materials have been used extensively, the hull has been modified and the boom extended. The vessel should soon be finished and its rating will be registered in the « Spirit of Tradition » class.

blue.gif (104 Byte) CONCLUSION : this gathering has reached agreement on the following points :

  • In order to conserve the maritime heritage represented by classic yachts, faithful restorations must be privileged, and the presence of modern materials such as the incorporation of carbon at mastheads or in spars must be strictly codified.
  • The adoption of a standardised rating system for classic yachts is highly desirable.
  • The « Spirit of Tradition » class needs to be better structured and better defined. As regards post-1975 craft, further discussion is required on the admission of one-off units in wood or steel. Once this pressing situation is successfully clarified, the class will certainly evolve and numerous owners will adhere to it. It is a duty of CIM to anticipate and respond to their expectations. The notion of the term « replica » applied to a newly-built vessel must be defined very precisely taking into account the degree of fidelity to the original design and layout.

This second World Meeting has given us a very wide and accurate panorama of the vitality of the yachting tradition the world over, and also enabled us to draw some conclusions concerning its probable evolution. The meeting has shown up shared points of view and also differing outlooks. We have seen that different countries and different areas of navigation have their specific traditions. It has also been demonstrated that there are some matters that require urgent settlement.